Causes of female infertility

There may be a whole range of causes of female infertility or lower fertility. For the detection of causes, it is necessary to perform necessary examinations in order to determine appropriate follow-up treatment. Among the most common causes of female infertility are ovarian factor, tubal factor, genetic factor, endometriosis or immunological factor. 

Ovarian factor

Ovarian factor is related to improper ovarian function. The most common problems associated with ovarian function include:                                                                                                                                                                 

  • anovulation, i.e. inability of ovaries to release the egg.
  • Premature ovarian failure, which is characterized by insufficient hormonal function of ovaries, is similar to that in menopause.
  • Polycystic ovaries are ovarian cysts that occur when the ripening follicles are not released from the ovaries as they should. They grow under ovarian surface and more new follicles are still emerging. Therefore, new cysts are formed and the ovary increases. At the same time, ovarian capsule also grows in order to cover the ovary. Thus, a polycystic ovary occurs.

Tubal factor

Tubal factor is another possible cause of infertility. It is associated with obstruction or absence of fallopian tubes. In these cases, the egg cannot get from the ovary to the uterus and the sperm cannot reach the egg. Even with partial obstruction of the fallopian tubes, there is a risk that the fertilized egg will remain in the fallopian tube and cause ectopic pregnancy. This problem often concerns women with endometriosis or those who have undergone a gynecological infection.


Relatively high percentage of women suffers from endometriosis. It is a disease in which particles of uterine lining, which is called endometrium, move outside their normal placement. It often occurs in the pelvic region in fallopian tubes, ovaries, bladder, etc., where it can manifest itself in the form of adhesions between organs, cysts or painful tissue nodes.

Genetic factor

This problem concerns both women and men who have some genetic defects or are their carriers. It often means that there may not be inability to get pregnant naturally, but extracorporeal fertilization is recommended in these cases to exclude the possibility of conception of a child with a genetic defect. In order to detect possible transmission of chromosomal defects, we offer the possibility of testing genetic compatibility of the couple with CarrierTest.

Immunological factor

Infertility caused by immunological aspects can affect both men and women. As a result of certain immunological problems, immune system can attack sperm or ovarian tissue. Couples with immunological problems often deal with problems of conception or frequent miscarriages.

How is the cause of female infertility identified?

In conversation with the physician, the couple responds to questions that are focused on occurrence of various illnesses in the family and during their own lives. The physician asks questions about used drugs or dietary supplements, frequency of sexual intercourse, operations performed, inflammations of female organs, previous pregnancies and menstrual cycles. Consult with a doctor the couple responds to questions about the occurrence of various diseases in the family and of your own life. The doctor will ask questions about medication or dietary supplements that are used by the couple, frequency of sexual intercourse, previous surgeries, vaginitis, previous pregnancies and menstrual cycle. 

Gynecological examination

After the initial medical history, gynecological examination is required in which the physician assesses the condition of female reproductive organs. In addition, the organs of the small pelvis (uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries) are displayed by ultrasound, or an examination of patency of the fallopian tubes is performed.

Basic laboratory blood
and urine tests

Blood test shows possible presence of sexually transmitted diseases (hepatitis B and C, syphilis, HIV), thyroid function (TSH, fT4, fT3, anti TPO, anti TG), ovarian reserve (AMH - Anti-Müllerian hormone, hormonal profile (FSH, LH, estrogens, progesterone, prolactin, testosterone, SHBG). Urine is tested for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis.

According to the results of individual examinations, the physician may recommend further diagnostic tests such as hysteroscopy, hydrolaparoscopy, 3D ultrasound, genetic, immunological or endocrinological examinations.

This diagnosis is further recommended for the purpose of discovering and subsequently treating the cause of infertility.